Tuesday, March 24, 2020
Anne BradstreetÃ¢â¬â¢s Criticism of the Male World in Her Ã¢â¬ÅThe PrologueÃ¢â¬Â Essay Sample free essay sample
Anne BradstreetÃ¢â¬â¢s Criticism of the Male World in her Ã¢â¬Å"The PrologueÃ¢â¬ In her verse form the Prologue. Anne Bradstreet aggressively criticizes the male universe for its unfair bias and ill will against the female universe and female creativeness. In order to knock the male universe. Anne Bradstreet uses such literary devices as sarcasm and irony. The tone of Anne is dry throughout the verse form. Her attack seems to be really polite but behind this polite attitude there lies a biting every bit good as pointed onslaught towards the male universe. She uses many understatements which are besides the grade of her dry niceness. In the gap stanza she uses the understatement Ã¢â¬Ëmean penÃ¢â¬â¢ to bespeak her ability. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s really dry that she tells us about her inability. though we know that she was the first American adult female poet who wrote some finest wordss. Throughout the first three stanzas. We will write a custom essay sample on Anne BradstreetÃ¢â¬â¢s Criticism of the Male World in Her Ã¢â¬Å"The PrologueÃ¢â¬ Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page she uses other dry comments. She compares herself with the Ã¢â¬Ëschool boysÃ¢â¬â¢ and says that her inability is congenital and irreparable. My foolish. broken. blemished Muse so sings.And this to repair. alas. no Art is able.Ã¢â¬ËCause Nature made it so irreparable. Though she degrades her place by comparing herself with the school male child. we know that she read Shakespeare. Sir Walter Raleigh and Cervantes. So. it is another illustration of her dry niceness. In the 4th stanza. she contrasts herself with Demosthenes and says that her inability can non be cured as it is by nature weak and wounded. Art can make much. but this maximÃ¢â¬â¢s most certainA weak and wounded encephalon admits no remedy. Here she directs her onslaught to the bias of the male universe that adult females are by nature Ã¢â¬ËweakÃ¢â¬â¢ . So. she criticized the male bias by this polite comment. But in the 5th stanza her unfavorable judgment becomes unfastened and direct. Here she uses irony in order to knock the ill will of the male universe. She uses such reprimanding comments as Ã¢â¬Ëcarping lingua. Ã¢â¬â¢ ObnoxiousÃ¢â¬â¢ in order to demo the ill will of the male universe. She opines that the male universe tries to degrade her place in several ways. Harmonizing to her. the male universe degrades and devalues the female creativeness. She unmasks this favoritism of the male universe in a sarcastic manner. She besides uses other sarcastic comments such as she calls the male members of her society as Greek. Her dry attack reaches to the point of flood tide in the last stanzas. Here she uses such inflated looks as precedency. Ã¢â¬ËexcelÃ¢â¬â¢ . Ã¢â¬ËpreeminenceÃ¢â¬â¢ etc in order to laud the alleged high quality of the male universe. Actually the male members of the society use these words to mean their place. Anne Bradstreet echoes these words but her tone is really ironi++c. In the last stanza she once more uses some sarcastic comments such as Ã¢â¬ËFlown quills. Ã¢â¬Å" your quarry still catch your congratulations. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Ëlowly linesÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëglistering goldÃ¢â¬â¢ etc in order to demo the ego glorifying and ego fulfilling outlook of the male individuals of her society. She besides uses such looks as Ã¢â¬ËmeanÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËunrefinedÃ¢â¬â¢ ore in order to demo her unimportance. She says that her work is unprocessed ore. but we know that as a poetes s she is non without accomplishments. So. her dry debasement really heightens her place to our eyes. Therefore. we see that Anne Bradstreet uses the dry and sarcastic comments throughout the verse form in order to knock the male bias and male attitude towards the female universe and female creativeness.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Can You Really Write an eBook in a Week If you could write a book every week, what would you write about? Is it even possible to write a book in a week? Browse Amazon, and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll find all kinds of writing books promising to teach you how to write a book in just a few days. I used to be cynical about these claims. I was a plodding writer. I believed you had to write slowly, otherwise youÃ¢â¬â¢d create shoddy work. The promise of writing a book in a week was hyperbole Ã¢â¬â or so I thought. Things began to change for me when I discovered that Isaac Asimov wrote over 500 books in his lifetime. On further examination, I found that other authors had equally prolific outputs. Belgian novelist Georges Simenon also wrote and published more than 500 books. Meanwhile the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s writer Enid Blyton authored over 750 novels and story collections. Still I clung to my old beliefs. Ã¢â¬Å"Sure, they could do it,Ã¢â¬ I told myself. Ã¢â¬Å"But they had special gifts. For most writers, slow is normal.Ã¢â¬ I believe I was right that for most writers, slow is normal. But in all other respects, I was wrong. Fast writing continued to seem impossible to me until I had no choice in the matter. IÃ¢â¬â¢d been a professional blogger for several years, and then I got my first ebook client. I was thrilled. But the work came with a special request. My client needed the ebook finished within one week. Could I do it? I was terrified, but I wanted to give it a try. This was the opportunity I had been waiting for. Now, I could discover what I was capable of. That week, writing slowly was no longer an option. I got up early on Monday morning and began work. I started writing at 7.30 a.m., pushing myself to write as fast as I could. I poured my heart into every word. If anything, my writing seemed more vibrant for not being churned around my brain before being committed to the page. I finished the first draft IÃ¢â¬â¢d done it. IÃ¢â¬â¢d pushed through all my misconceptions and fears about writing. IÃ¢â¬â¢d learned I was capable of far more than I previously imagined possible. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s more, I knew IÃ¢â¬â¢d created something good. My clients were delighted with my work. But what would readers think? Eventually, the first review came in. Five stars. IÃ¢â¬â¢d really done it! How much did I write that week? Ten thousand words. A relatively short book, but a respectable length ebook. Looking back, and knowing whatÃ¢â¬â¢s possible for me now, 10,000 words doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem like a whole lot. But at the time, it seemed like a miracle. If youÃ¢â¬â¢ve never tried writing fast, I recommend seeing what youÃ¢â¬â¢re capable of. Challenge yourself to double your daily output. Even if what you write isnÃ¢â¬â¢t perfect, because youÃ¢â¬â¢ve written twice as much as usual, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have an extra day free for editing. And chances are, you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t need to do nearly as much editing as you think. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll only discover whatÃ¢â¬â¢s possible So why not give fast writing a try today? IÃ¢â¬â¢d love to hear how you get on.
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Math - Lab Report Example Grade Book button contains grades of the completed quizzes and tests. Expand Chapter content button it populates more tabs with the heading of the chapters and their details. Expand Tools of Success button contain the helping tools, help, support and suggestions. Multimedia Library Button Contains access to multimedia resources available for our textbooks. Pearson Tutor Service contains access to Pearson Tutor Services for personalized, detailed assistance with what we are learning. Discussion button currently doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t contain anything right now but it the place where students can discuss issues in their assignments. Expand Course Tools menu to access item such as email, the Class Live chat environment, document sharing, and instructor tools. In homework section, homework for different chapters is placed in different icons buttons. Assignments for different chapters are also accessible in this section. This section also contains questions for chapters and can provide help in solving these questions. For example, the interactive graphic tools is provided in Chapter 1 Homework Objective 1 question 1, by which student can easily solve such questions. Te basic aim of this section is to provide various tools that can be utilised while solving questions. For example the graphic calculator can be utilized while working with a data set. It requires entering the data and then using the calculator various statistical analyses can be done on the given data set and all such info is provided in the Ã¢â¬ËGraphing Calculator HelpÃ¢â¬â¢ and the Ã¢â¬ËreviewÃ¢â¬â¢ tab provides summarised content that may be needed while dealing with mathematical problems. Ã¢â¬ËSupport for technologyÃ¢â¬â¢ tab also includes useful guides for using the graphic calculator and working on MS Excel. Ã¢â¬ËThe extended applications tab provides various case studies where the mathematical tools are utilised for solving problems in the real world. The mathematical application in the management
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Minor Paper - Essay Example identify that there are issues around the financial control, particularly the bank reconciliation and capacity and skill level in financial reporting. The 2013 financial statements were not submitted in time (Mulgan, 2013). The finance director informed me that this was due to the late implementation of the regulatory assurance approach and the way the new external auditor was conducting their work with rigor. During the review, the management issued me with the draft of the Price Water-house Coopers management letter in relation to the year ended 31st December 2013, which has twenty recommendations to the financial administration. It points out a number of areas in financial administration within the department that needs improvement. These include the general level of skills, capacity and competence reporting of the financial across the department is not at the level they should be in light with the government expansion and the increasing complexity in reporting of the financial statements (Parliament of Australia, 2007). Close observation of the financial statements of the department reveals that the department has not demonstrated a consistent and disciplined approach to bank reconciliation. This was noted in the external auditorÃ¢â¬â¢s management letter and acknowledged by the department. The other area of the review is the supplier and the professional services that are carried out by the department. It was not practicable for the review to look at the entire procurement practices with the department and all those for the government, but focused on the issues in board minutes. The board minutes indicated that there had been procedural irregularities in respect to certain contracts of the department and the government lets and that the extent of irregularities was a notch higher in the department (Business Council of Australia, 2008). My procedural review into the discrepancies of the procurement procedures also revealed so. I came to realize that there were
Sunday, January 26, 2020
The concept of scientific management case study The concept of scientific management can be defined as the exercise of the scientific technique to define the most appropriate or best way for a job to be done. Important Contributions in this field is made by Frederick W. Taylor, who is deemed as the father of scientific management. Taylors employment at the Bethlehem Steel companies inspired his concern in improving efficiency. Frederick W. Taylor sought to produce a mental transformation among both workers and managers by defining transparent guidelines towards improving production efficiency. Through all of these, Frederick W. Taylor was adept to define the most suitable or one best way for doing every job. Frederick W. Taylor accomplished steady improvements in productivity in the range of nearly 200 percent. He acknowledged the role of managers to plan and manage and of workers to act upon as they were instructed (Daniel, 1992)Ã Ã . The expansion of management theories has been described by differing ideas regarding what managers do and how they should do it. It is believed that scientific management pored over management from the lookout of enhancing the productivity and competency of manual workers. Frederick W. Taylors Four Principles of Scientific Management includes- carefully study every part of the task scientifically and cultivate a best method to perform that particular task..He also suggested to carefully choose workers and prepare them to perform a task with the use of scientifically developed approach (Daniel, 1992)1. Time studies as described by Taylor go ahead to the idea of the assembly procession which is suitably open up for any type of organization. The term of Scientific management has been originally selected as a indication to progressives ideals of the 1910s. Scientific management, at first the inadequacy of laissez-faire and the necessary role of disinterested elites (Haber, 1964)Ã Ã ! The functionalist imagery used in The Principles of Scientific Management presents the Taylorist approach as a set of prescriptions to get better a few endeavors. Similarly mental transformation planned might be an appeal for a social commitment of engineers as well as controlled persons of the organization. (Daniel, 1992)1. The recent international development of new thoughts is a result of the internal revolution of firms as well as a component of interaction between between reformist actions at the turning of the century. However without believing honestly in all of too good-natured declarations of social harmony, how would the peculiarity of this discourse of modernization would be seriously taken into account and analyzed. On the opposite side Taylor saw that -the power of the skilled workers was the lack of power on the part of management. Taylor therefore extended as his goal the refurbishment of power back into the hands of management. He did not see this in terms of a dispute between social groups. In Taylors view, there is need of scientific study of the work process in order to enhance productivity and efficiency which would be of benefit for all. However the present system not able to provide this and therefore needed fundamental reform. Taylor believed that attempts levels and incentive systems should be determined on scientific basis. It was not the result of bargaining and dispute between skilled workers and managers. Therefore he began to look at other ways where the production system could be restructured (Daniel, 1992)1. Taylors 4 Principles of Scientific Management Taylor proposed the following four principles of scientific management which he concluded after years of various experiments to determine optimal work methods:- Collaborate with the workers to make sure that the scientifically developed approaches are being followed. Distribute total work nearly equally among managers and workers, such as the managers apply scientific management ideology to planning the work and the workers essentially perform the tasks. Exchange rule of thumb work methods with techniques based on a scientific study of the tasks. Scientifically choose, coach, and develop each worker instead of passively leaving them to train themselves (Daniel, 1992)1. These all four principles were implemented in many production units as well as factories which focused on increasing productivity through a factor of either three or more principles. It is a evidence that Henry Ford applied some of Taylors principles in his organization and automobile/ vehicle factories as well as families and the result of the same all these started to perform their individual and household tasks basis on the outcome of time and motion studies (Daniel, 1992)1. Any discussion of scientific management needs to identify its particular contextual features. These feature gaggle Taylor in two directions. First direction which is implanted in all modem industrial systems concerns the requirement for planning of the production process. However, the other direction was focused towards a specific model of how the work process could be structured. It was based on a process of generalization of skills and deskilling. On the basis of specific American context, for a time being, it may be successful in that context but, as a more generic way, it was not commonly adopted because in other countries, privileged, managers as well as workers had different expectations of their particular roles. So skilled work keep hold of a greater significance in many more countries and sectors than Taylor would have expected (Daniel, 1992)1. Application of Scientific Management in case study Human Resource or Staffing costs take up the largest share of the budget in all major important hospitals. There should be effective processes that should be focused on managing recruitment, sickness and absence staff, which can offer considerable benefits. Required changes in practice are one thing but enabling sustainable developments which is generally considered as a more difficult challenge. Work with precious in accepting how to attain long term change and how to constantly improve standard practice should be major concern (Koontz, 1986)Ã Ã . In the given case of Aidensfield Hospitals Trust (AHT) it is reveal that Human resource management administration is presently controlled from a central HR department, although some areas of the organizations people management practices such as employee selection, discipline, grievance and communication have been delegated to line management within loose group working arrangements. However, slack reporting structures, weak lines of communication, along with ill-defined limits of authority and accountability have resulted in role ambiguity within the line managers. In turn, this is mirrored in job insecurity, low morale and poor motivation at operational level (Tsoukas, 1994)Ã Ã It also suggested that working alongside the Human Resources team at ATH must undertake a diagnostic review of current processes. To apply this initial lean implementation activity, supported with an introduction to support methodologies and waste walk, pin-pointed the main areas for improvement within the department that may include sickness and absence rates and the lead-time for recruitment to unfilled or vacant posts. It also require, the complete process flow planning of sickness and absence management identified postponements, gaps in the process and a lack of standardization (Koontz,1986)Ã Ã . Additional focus also suggested on delays through root basis analysis supported by the team in recognizing solutions to the key issues, which may include: Case conferencing Mandatory training Performance indicators Project planning Simplified procedures and documentation Process mapping of recruitment activities are the major challenges which required to be highlighted through the system. The new requirement analysis should be done for Job design which is part of vacancy filling. These steps focus out of sequence, standards being followed and further delays may arise in Occupational Health and patients checking and diagnosis (Goold, 2002)Ã Ã . The root cause analysis may help the team work at ATH on a number of expected solutions that may include:- Transparent performance measures Capacity matching measures Separated recruitment from job design Standard recruitment procedures Demand Building on all suggested improvement The ATH management should work with the Human Resources team to develop their internal base capability in order to sustain new improvements. All the staff should require to attain training workshop which given them skills in techniques such as general process mapping and structured problem analysis as well as solving. At ATH many role ambiguity and a degree of inconsistency regarding people management arrangements is apparent within supervisory grades in the organization should be removed. More emphasis on Delegation, communication, team-building and employee empowerment have all been problematic issues for managers, trade union representatives and employees of this health service provider. As a manager leadership is crucial to the success of ATH. A caring, competent and professional leader will earn the respect and support of all the staff. Managers who show by example that they are acting according to a sound value system and a high work ethic are well on the road to managing a suc cessful hospital. To do this, managers need personal goals. The team must have a clear strategy for themselves and communicate this clearly to others. However teamwork that involves all levels of staff, starting with the management, developing a shared vision and purpose for the hospital within its shared core values is a way to unify people from different backgrounds and professions. To improve the HR functions at ATH is suggested that the organization to perform effectively in this highly competitive environment, senior management perceive a need to streamline the management structure, formalize reporting arrangements, clarify parameters of authority and improve the present group working arrangements. It is likely that these changes will have far-reaching consequences for both management and operational workers. Because the present management-employee relations climate is not conductive to the implementation of change, it will be necessary to create a positive team-based environme nt to embrace ongoing change in the future (McMahon, 1980)Ã Ã . Q4. Using specific examples drawn from the case study discuss leadership styles and the potential behavioral responses. Leadership Styles Leadership generally defined in numerous ways by different authors, however the most appropriate one in the hospital scenario is the process of influencing all the behavior of an individual or a group in such a way that they try hard keenly towards the achievement of organization goals (Clegg, 2005)Ã Ã . Types of leadership Autocratic Leadership The characteristics of Autocratic leadership are:- The leader primarily seeks the conformity from his group. They have to carry out the work as preferred by the leader. The whole authority is centralized with the leader and he can determine everything. The leaders can structures entire work for his employees. Communication is generally unidirectional from above downwards. Workers compliance can obtain through threats and punishments. Those who obey orders may reward and those who do not are punished. It is a carrot and stick type of leadership. All employees have very slight responsibility. All employees assured about their security. (h) Decision making is speedy and less competent subordinates can be simply employed. (i) The highly qualified professionals do not like this type of leadership as there is short of scope for growth, development, proposal and sense of responsibility. (j) Fear, argument, dissatisfaction and frustration can increase easily (Clegg, 2005)8. Participative or Democratic Leadership The characteristics of Democratic Leadership are:- Communication can make in all directions. Decision making taking more time. Experienced and capable workers feel more happy and satisfied. In this type of leadership, leader and workers share the decision making. It is not a carotid stick type of leadership. There are no punishments but corrective actions and rewards are based on goal achievements. The leader draws the ideas and suggestions from the workers by discussions and consultations. The workers are encouraged to take part in making organizational goals and the job of leader is mainly that of control. The workers have a common sense of belonging and satisfaction. Unskilled and lower level workers do not like this style (Clegg, 2005)8. Laissez-Faire or Free Rein Leadership In this type of leadership, each worker has his own ability and the leader is relatively like an information cubicle. He exercises a minimum and assumes the role of another member of the group. This is more suitable for investigate laboratories and similar organizations (Clegg, 2005)8. Epidemiology of Leadership in different conditions In order to determine the best leadership style following three factors can be obtained. The condition in which the leading takes place. The people individual lead. The personal individuality of the leader himself. Because differences take place in all three of these factors, there can be major deviation in leadership style (Clegg, 2005)8. The other differentiation of major leadership style is listed below:- Affiliative Leadership Authoritative Leadership Charismatic Leadership Coaching Leadership Style Coercive Leaders Democratic Leaders Pacesetting Leaders Behavioral Responses A Leader has an authority that motivates others towards achieve a common goal. Respected leaders focus on what they are about their beliefs and character, what they know about job, tasks, and human nature, and what they do to implement, motivate, and provide directions. Managers may manage tasks. Leaders can lead people. Respected managers have subordinates and leaders have followers. Managers are those people who do things right. Leaders are those people who do the right thing. Leadership style is the style in which manner and approach for providing directions, implementing plans, and motivating people. Leaders may vary their styles. A Leader is not strict on one style. Mostly leaders may use multiple styles to control their followers one (Golema, 2002)Ã Ã . True leadership starts when it does an impact on the followers. Every counseling leader makes the assumption that there is individuality about individuals skills, and that some may beat the leaders in convinced areas. Ideas are encourage able and shareable, and decisions that reflects the collective intelligence of the team members. The leader consults with their followers and smooths the system for them to do a superior job. Where a manager may give a sense of self-belief in the leader, the counseling leader gives all the team members a sense of self-belief in themselves. By installing this confidence in their work, the counseling leader set the point for what is known as maintenance behavior, the ability to keep things affecting on keel. In this regard, the leader may become a valuable person for the company who has ability to develop internal concord (Golema, 2002)9. The formula for a success leader is really very simple: The more leadership styles are adopted more you are able to master, so you will become the superior leader. The ability to replace between styles as situation demands wills superior the result and workplace climate. Golemans research exposed four more leadership styles that leaders were able to master the affinitive, democratic, coaching, and authoritative styles frequently provide better performance from their followers and a healthy climate in which they are working (Golema, 2002)9. Application to case study The hospital is a multipart organization, aimed to attain the patient care fulfillment. This organization is totally different from other organizations like cotton industry, toys or car production industry, all the principles of management are appropriate in the hospital atmosphere. Hospitals are labor concentrated organizations and engage a large number of professionals, who are working in a life and death activity, leadership is one of the areas which attach a lot of importance in the hospital management. In the hospital various types of people come across, like hospital employees, patients and the visitors. The scope is more or limited to the hospital employees. (McMahon, 1980)7. As already discussed hospital is a multipart organization aimed with various types of actions performed by different groups of employees ranging from unskilled to highly skilled and professional. Mainly the hospital employees can be divided into three groups. Medical (Professionals). Non-medical. Nursing and paramedical. Professional employees: This group consists of doctors, specialists and super specialists who are highly qualified and highly skilled workers. Even though money and materials may provoke some of them but on the whole they are provoked only after their psychological needs are met with. Their psychological needs can be met when they are participating in the decision making. As a result, they feel intelligence of belonging and achieve acclaim as well (Golema, 2002)9. Nursing and paramedical employees: This group consists of technical and semiskilled workers lower than the professional group. Primarily they require job structuring by oppressive way of leadership, they obtain so much proficiency that direction and willpower takes higher priority in motivating them and they become an important part of the unrestricted leadership (Golema, 2002)9. Non-Medical employees: This group consists of unskilled workers with very low education and very low financial status. Their inspiration comes by meeting their basic and security requirements. Simply by money and material benefits can satisfy this type of group. Since their requirements are very limited and need job security, the oppressive style of leadership is the improved way to control them (Golema, 2002)9. There are two types of situations in hospital industry. Normal situation Crisis situation Normal situation: Throughout normal situation professional, nursing and paramedical groups of workers are controlled with the democratic type of leadership. Even the hospital disaster plan can be discussed and customized according to the past experiences. The non-medical group of employees can be governed by the autocratic style of leadership even throughout the normal situations. Crisis situation: The comparatively sudden and wide spread trouble of the social system and the life of group of people by some agent or occurrence of large amount of admissions of patients and lead to the crisis situation in the hospital. Hospital disaster plan is activated in this situation and demands autocratic style of leadership (Golema, 2002)9. For achieving optimal leadership style the leader has to modify his working style according to the needs. In ancient days leadership was considered to be the natural feature and used to lead in the particular families. Due to availability of better management tools and development of the scientific knowledge, now leadership basically involves in motivating the staff and appliance of communication skills (Golema, 2002)9. Operative leadership is an essential need for higher utilization of insufficient hospital resources and higher superiority of medical care. It has already been discussed that democratic style is more appropriate for the normal situations for highly qualified and highly professional group, whereas crisis situations can be managed by way of autocratic style of leadership. The autocratic style of leadership can control the non- medical group effectively. The hospital administrator should have competency in all the styles of leadership and should select the one according to the situation (McMahon, 1980)7. Q6. Critically review the concept informal organization and illustrate how it may apply to the case study. Concept of informal organization The nature of organizational structure has changed over many decades. The major trend of organizational has been from mechanistic structures, hierarchies, functional specializations and management controls, to organic structures, characterized by team working, empowerment and flexibility. Organizational design reflects the systems that consider both hard and soft components, i.e. elements, association between elements, and relations as a whole to form one unit. Therefore, mechanistic and organic structures acquire different characteristics, namely: mechanistic structures emphasize the hard component of systems with minute consideration paid to the soft component; while organic structures mainly expand the soft component (that is the informal structure) relating to the interaction between the soft and hard components for the creation of organizational capability. This conceptual term paper embraces systems opinion, elaborating on the changing importance of elements within different ty pes of organizational structure. In addition to the importance of managing the informal structure for the goal of organizational success within the facts economy (Kotter 1990)Ã Ã ! Informal structure is essential for organizational behavior, but, unlike formal structure, is not illustrated in the organizational chart. On the other hand, formal organizational structure can be unreliable, as many organizational activities, which symbolize the real vigor, may be undertake outside the framework of formal organizational structure; and people, who control the real future, may be well hidden beneath of the organizational chart (Roberts, 2004)Ã Ã . Therefore, formal institutions have been analyzed and evaluated separately of informal institutions. The converse is also true: the informal institutions have largely distant from the importance of formal institutions, often viewing them as functional substitute. Some of the scholars feels that is not adequately look at the relations between formal and in-formal organizational / institutions. We challenge in somehow towards failure to amalgamate of all these concepts into a common theory has led to imperfect reasoning and considerable weakness in theories of economic organization. In this essay we analysis the both informal and formal institutions of economic organization into the most fundamental predictions of NIE. The formal and informal organization structure Organizations have a formal structure which is organized by the responsibility for managing the organization. They create the formal structures to enable the organization to meet its affirmed objectives (Weick, 2001)Ã Ã . Frequently these formal structures will be set out in the form of organizational charts. However, an informal structure develops day-to-day interactions between the members of the organization in most organizations. This informal structure may be different from set out on paper. Informal structures develop because: Informal structures are easier to work on it. patterns of interaction are formed by friendship groups and other relationships people does not like to work on formal structures people find new ways for doing things in easier way and save the time Many times the unofficial structure might be conflict with the formal or official one. It can be noted that where these case the organization might become less efficient towards meeting its stated objectives. In spite of this, in some cases the informal or unofficial structure might ascertain to become more efficient while meeting organizational aim because the formal organizational structure might be set out very badly. It is supposed that managers require learning to work with both formal and informal structures. It may be a flexible manager who may feel fundamentals of the in-formal organizational structure that might be formalized for sake of understanding by accommodation the formal organization structure to fits in developments that may results from daily working of the in-formal structure. All of the organizations that appear in the Times 100 will have some form of formal structure which is usually set out in organization charts. As the managers foster these in-formal teams an d mould all of them in-to the formal organization which can lead to high intensity of motivation for the staff concerned. However, these organizations also benefit from informal structures based on friendship groups. By analyzing how the informal and formal organizations might be complementary, balanced and integrated, the requirements of an organization become clear and practical solutions present themselves. On the other hand a formal process makes sure that particular works that might be efficient and primary informal set up that can be organize individuals quickly as well as effectively towards put an end to issues that might not be addressed in system itself. On the other hand proper performance bonus may inspire top sales people and gives pride in better negotiation behaviors that might inspire the larger group of low or middle performers (Watson, 1986)Ã Ã . Application of informal organization to case study Few hospital trusts and health authorities steadily do better than others on different paths towards performance. In this case study of ATH, there are some proof related to management matters, however the combination of individual clinicians and teams. In this case it is found that the link between the organization and management of services as well as quality of patient care can be criticized theoretically and methodologically (Miles, 1978)Ã Ã . A larger and debatably more precise body of work presents on the performance of hospital in the private sector, often conducted within the disciplines of organizational behavior or human resource management. Some studies in these traditions have towards the decentralization and participation as well as innovative work rehearsal on outcome of variables which may include job satisfaction, good feeling and performance. The main objective is to identify a number of reviews and research traditions that might bring new and innovative ideas into future work towards finding out hospital performance. This may be the case where preferably furthere research might be more theoretically in-formed which may use parallel rather than horizontal designs. The use of some statistical methods and techniques which include multilevel modeling that allow for the inclusion of variables towards various levels of analysis that would enable rough estimation of separate involvement that structure, process make to hospital outcomes. (McMahon, 1980)7 For a medium sized hospital as ATH, it might not be sure why, but over the last few years it was found it more and more difficult to be effective people management in the traditional ways. It was almost as if ATH management spent all of their time trying to swim upstream. Things that used to be obvious and easy became difficult however ATH management couldnt understand why. This problem unfortunately is a fairly common problem within same companies or hospitals. ATH management failed to understand and manage the informal organization structure within these functional teams. As this can be a fatal flaw to all managers which may include senior ones! All company in generally having two organization structures, the first one is called formal structure. This is the one everyone talks about. It can be seen on official organization charts. It shows who reports to whom, who is responsible for what and how everyone is supposed to communicate with each other. But then theres another organizati on that few talk about but is at least equally important (Clarke, 1998)Ã Ã . Its the informal organization within the company. Its the structure which can be following when the management/ authorities like ATH management dont have the time to do it the right way. Its based on who knows what, who gets things done, who has influence and power, who must agree before an idea can be effectively implemented. Formal structures are the way a hospital wants things to work. Informal structures describe the way they really work. (McMahon, 1980)7. Efficient and effective companies recognize this and management makes sure they are never very far apart. They understand that if they are too far apart for too long something is going to break. The problem is that it is difficult to predict what will break. In this case it is found that there is problem that ATH management failed to include and listen to other key executives, some of whom management thought had nothing to do with what he was changing, as he moved forward with an important series of initiatives (Evans, 2000)Ã Ã . There are two lessons to be learned from ATH management experience. The first is rather obvious, every manager and employee should understand that informal structures exist in companies, that they are not much bad and must be understand and used as required appropriately. It is found that Ignoring all of them is done at ATH management own risk. Similarly another lesson which seems more fundamental (Mintzberg, 1993)Ã Ã ! ATH management need to periodically look at how things are done, how they are organ
Saturday, January 18, 2020
The poem talks about three girls plotting against a giant. The first girl plans that when his yokel comes maundering, whetting his hacker, the first girl will run before him. She will diffuse the civilest of odors out of geraniums and unsmelled flowers. The girl expects that this will check the giant. The second girls plan is to directly run before the giant. She will arch cloths besprinkled with colors that are as small as fish-eggs. The threads of the cloth will abash the giant. Lastly the third girl calls the giant la pauvre. She will also run before the giant with a curious puffing. He expects the giant to bend his ear to her puffing and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s when she plans to whisper heavenly labials in a world of gutturals. This will undo the giant. The Plot of against the Giant is a poem published among Steven WallaceÃ¢â¬â¢s other poems under the book Harmonium which was published in 1923. The poem has a lot of playfulness and imagination but one would wonder who WallaceÃ¢â¬â¢s giant was. He could mean someone else or the giant could be himself. The poem consists of three parts. This could mean three approaches or three aspects or three techniques or three different experiences or stories all together. First line goes when this yokel comes maundering, yokel means an uneducated person, they are also known as bumpkins standing for unsophisticated country people. In fiction, yokels are usually depicted as gullible and easily conned. On the contrary, they may be viewed as straightforward and simplistic, and therefore seeing through sophisticated pretenses. Maundering can mean either wander aimlessly or talk indistinctly or speak rapidly. So the first line mean the first girl is waiting when the giant whom she calls a yokel comes to wander. The poem continues, whetting his hacker, I shall run before him, Diffusing the civilest odors Out of geraniums and unsmelled flowers. It will check him. Whetting is sharpening. With the continuation, the first paragraph suggests that the first girl will run to the giant when he is wandering without care sharpening his hacker. She plans to run to him and pour out and spread freely the nicest smelling odors from geraniums and unsmelled flowers and this will check the giant. The second girl says, I shall run before him, Arching cloths besprinkled with colors As small as fish-eggs.The threads. Will abash him. This suggests that she will run to the giant bending clothes toward the giant sprinkled with colors as small as fish-eggs. The threads will disconcert and embarrass the giant. While the third girl says, Oh, laÃ¢â¬ ¦le pauvre! I shall run before him, With a curious puffing. He will bend his ear then. I shall whisper Heavenly labials in a world of gutturals. It will undo him. This suggests that she will run to the giant with an interesting but short forceful exhalation of breath or a short sudden gust of wind. This will make the giant bend his ear. The third girl will then whisper heavenly labials. Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth. Sounds like this will undo the giant. The poem has a lot of imagination, symbolism and subtlety. It even has playfulness. Ã Each girl represents certain dealing or a plan: the subtlety of fragrances, the colorfulness of the besprinkled cloths and the magic of sound.Ã Another way of understanding the poem is seeing the visions of the poet himself. The Giant could be Steven Wallace himself and the gist of the poem is basically women plotting against him. If Wallace had been fond of women during his days Ã¢â¬â we can only speculate. He must have composed the poem out from pure imagination or thoughtful observation or it could be that the poem came out from a true-to-life experience. With this premise we will them come to view the poem differently and perhaps more maturely. As IÃ¢â¬â¢ve mentioned the three girls can mean different approaches of woman to a man or how woman respond to man. Before we get to the details of the poem lets touch a little on the word giant. Why Wallace did choose his hero to be a giant? Why not a winged-angel or perhaps Superman? It could be possible that in Wallace mind he perceives men in general as giants, of course not in the physical sense but in the gender sensitive sense. Another point of consideration is when the poem was created. The poem was written when society was highly patriarchal. It could be very possible that Wallace views were highly influenced by a male-dominated society that time. This could be the reason why he sees men in general or himself as super beings Ã¢â¬â superior to ordinary man. He used a giant as his hero in the poem to portray this supremacy. However, Wallace was aware of the consequences of using a giant for a hero or maybe it is exactly what he intends. Just like Goliath in the Bible, though he is a giant he was defeated by a child in the person of David. Wallace might have seen this perspective and opted to mold his character into a Giant and multiplied his David into three. Evident in the poem is WallaceÃ¢â¬â¢s bias on woman. He used the word plot against Ã¢â¬âand to plot against is something adversarial. As upfront as this title, the walls have been divided. Wallace then sees women as the enemy. The three dames represent a battle WallaceÃ¢â¬â¢s giant needs to overcome. First is the art of subtlety Ã¢â¬â using the sense of smell. It is common knowledge that scents and perfumes are women essentials. As much as women loves wearing it Ã¢â¬â men loves smelling it. The poem speaks of this with the first girl using all the civilest odors from geraniums to the unsmelled flowers. This suggest that the girl used the scents to check the giant out. She used the scents to weaken the giant. We should take note that the first girl was careful when to release these odors Ã¢â¬â only when the yokel is maundering. It is not done all the time, timing is everything. Second is the use of color and of clothes. If this is effective in taming a man then it is much effective now. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t only tame or abash a man it can be used to intimidate though todayÃ¢â¬â¢s playing field doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t play much on the color nor on the cloth but a lot has been attributed to style. I would say attitude counts too. Third is the use of sound. Sound can have different effects on people. It depends on the kind and quality of sound we hear. The poem speaks of heavenly labial sounds. To me this suggests sensuality. These sounds can be the ahhs and the ohhhs or can be a moan or a groan that surely is very powerful letting the third girl call the giant la pauvre. It wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be a wonder because labial sounds are mostly guttural thus instinctive. The effects of these sounds are expectedly instinctive in nature too. The Plot Against the Giant First Girl When this yokel comes maundering, Whetting his hacker, I shall run before him, Diffusing the civilest odors Out of geraniums and unsmelled flowers. It will check him. Second Girl I shall run before him, Arching cloths besprinkled with colors As small as fish-eggs. The threads Will abash him. Third Girl Oh, laÃ¢â¬ ¦le pauvre! I shall run before him, With a curious puffing. He will bend his ear then. I shall whisper Heavenly labials in a world of gutturals. It will undo him. (From Ã¢â¬Å"Harmonium,Ã¢â¬ 1923)
Friday, January 10, 2020
Development and Globalisation Development A process of social and economic advancement in terms of the quality of human life. Development can involve can involve economic, demographic, social political and cultural changes. Development is a term that can be used in many different contexts whether it is social, economical, political etc. However generally development refers to an improvement in certain areas: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Economic o An increase in the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy with a shift from secondary to tertiary industry which becomes less dependent on FDI. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Demographic An increase in population and a more ageing population as standard of living increases. Birth rates and death rates drop as life expectancy increases. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Social o An increase in the range of services, increased land prices and a more multicultural society. Greater access to education, health care and communication Ã¢â¬ ¢ Political o More democratic and more influence on the Ã¢â¬Ëglobal stageÃ¢â¬â¢. Stabl e government, no dictatorship. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cultural development o Greater equality for women and better race relations in multicultural societies. Measuring Development GDP- Gross Domestic Product Ã¢â¬â the value of all the goods and services produced in a country in a year, in $US, usually expressed as Ã¢â¬Å"per capitaÃ¢â¬ (per person). PPP (purchasing power parity)* figures are more useful. *Adjusted for loss of living GNP- The total value of goods and services produced by one country in a year, plus all net income earned from overseas sources, in $US. HDI- Human Development Index: It is a summary composite index that measures a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s average achievements in three basic aspects of human development: health, knowledge, and a decent standard of living. Life Expectancy Ã¢â¬ ¢ Literacy Rate Ã¢â¬ ¢ Standard of Living (measured in GDP per capita) It gives a more complete picture of development of a country than GDP alone as it considers social factors and not just economic factors. Development Continuum Originally there were three groupings that made up the development continuum, they were: Ã¢â¬ ¢ First World (those developed countr ies that had a democratic government and a strong economy) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Second World (communist countries) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Third World (UN developed countries) However as time has gone on newer economies have started to develop caused by different development patterns and speeds. The Development gap Ã¢â¬ ¢ The gap between rich and poor countries Ã¢â¬ ¢ Most commonly, the gap is thought of in terms of income/economics Ã¢â¬ ¢ It also social, environmental and even political aspects There was a suggested North/South divide originating from the Brandt report in 1980, where the north accounted for 80% of GDP but only 20% of the population; however this too requires some artistic licence and is a very general way of dividing countries. There are more accurate ways of grouping countries as listed below and as countries move through the development continuum countries pass from one category to another: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Developed (MDCÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬â the most well developed countries eg. UK) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Developing (Countries which are undergoing development Ã¢â¬â arguably they all are. Eg. Malaysia) Ã¢â¬ ¢ LDCÃ¢â¬â¢s (Least Developed Countries Ã¢â¬â eg. Ethiopia) Ã¢â¬ ¢ NICÃ¢â¬â¢s (Newly Industrialised Countries Ã¢â¬â Have just finished development (10 years or so) Eg. China) Ã¢â¬ ¢ RICÃ¢â¬â¢s (Recently Industrialised Countries Ã¢â¬â Further behind than the NICÃ¢â¬â¢s eg. Dubai) Centrally Planned Economies (The few remaining communist countries eg. North Korea) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Oil Rich Countries (Countries rich in oil eg. Saudi Arabia) Causes for the Development Gap Ã¢â¬ ¢ Colonialisation Ã¢â¬â colonial powers took resources from poorer countries Ã¢â¬ ¢ Price of commodities is often controlled by TNCs ensurin g high profits for MEDC firms and low prices paid to LEDC producers Ã¢â¬â Fair trade set up in reaction to this. Ã¢â¬ ¢ LEDCs are now primary producers Ã¢â¬â producing low cost commodities, e. g. bananas Ã¢â¬ ¢ Primary commodities have fallen in price, or stayed steady, while commodities they need has increased, e. . oil What is preventing the Development gap from closing? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Many LEDCs main industry is as primary producers Ã¢â¬â generally low profit Ã¢â¬ ¢ Internatnioal trade dominated by TNCs Ã¢â¬ ¢ Rapid The Asian Tigers Who or what are the Asian Tigers? Asian economies that have progressed economically at such substantial rates that have come to rival the earning capacity and quality of living of those being first-world countries Ã¢â¬â Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore and South Korea. Globalisation Globalisation: The increased inter-connection in the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s economic, cultural and political systems. Positives |Negatives | |Allowed the movement of people m ore easily |Uncontrolled migration | |Increased foreign trade |Inequality in wealth | |More access to food, services, healthcare etc. ll over the world |Heavy environmental cost | | |Loss of countries individual cultures, global cutters | Ã¢â¬ ¢ Globalisation began in the 19th century as there was the beginning of movement of people and goods; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Increase in independence Ã¢â¬ ¢ Increase in trade as well as the spread of industry Ã¢â¬ ¢ Beginning of Trans National Corporations. Globalisation continued in the 20th century and was shaped by a number of factors including: 1. Emergence of free markets (capitalist economy) 2. Deregulation of world financial markets 3. The establishment of the General Agreements of Tariffs and Trade (GATT) Ã¢â¬âthe WTO which sought to lower trade barriers. 4. The emergence of trade blocs 5. The establishment of the IMF and the World Bank 6. Development of global marketing and the continuing rise of TNCs. Flows Ã¢â¬ ¢ Capital o ICT allows cheap, reliable and almost instantaneous communication o Allows sharing information o Allows transfer of capital o Allows Marketing around the world Ã¢â¬ ¢ Labour o Improved transport for people Size of air craft o Low cost airlines o High speed rail links o Specialised workers- doctors, ICT etc. o Unskilled workers Ã¢â¬ ¢ Products and services o Integrated networks o Goods handling o Computing logistics o Container revolution o Improved transport for goods o Global marketing, the world as one market and create products that fit various regional market places e. g. coca-cola and McDon alds Patterns of production, distribution and consumption Manufacturing has gone from developed countries to lower wage economies. This is known as the GLOBAL SHIFT, which is brought about by FDI by TNCs. Many LEDCÃ¢â¬â¢S have benefited from the transfer of technology which has meant these countries can raise their productivity without raising their wages to the level of the developed countries. This has lead to the de-industrialisation of richer countries and the focus on tertiary and quaternary industry. There has also been outsourcing of service operations, such as call centres, Mumbai, this extends the influence on a global scale also the employment costs are a lot lower even though there is a highly educated workforce. Positive and negatives of the global shift Positives for MEDCs |Negatives for MEDCs | |Movement of polluting industries away from their country |Could lead to wide spread unemployment | |Growth in LEDCÃ¢â¬â¢s may lead to demand for exports from MEDCs |Loss of skills | |Cheaper imports can keep the cost of living down benefiting the retail |Negative multiplier effect | |sector |Large gap between skilled and unskilled workers who may experience | |Labour market f lexibility and efficiency |extreme redeployment differences | |Development of new technologies leading to investment |deindustrialisation of some areas, such as the North | |Help to reduce inflation | | |Positives for LEDCÃ¢â¬â¢s and NICÃ¢â¬â¢s |Negatives for LEDCÃ¢â¬â¢s | |Development of new industries Rapid urbanisation and rural-urban migration | |Increased employment |Westernised approach to economy | |Helps to reduce development gap |Increased environmental damage die to polluting industries | |Increased FDI and investment which can lead to improved services such as |Exploitation of labour | |infrastructure, health care and education |Disruptive social impacts | |Increased exports helps BoPs, and increases income and GDP |Over-dependant on one industry | |New technologies |Destabilises food supplies, less agriculture | | |Health and safety issues because of tax legislation | Patterns of production and processes In manufacturing there has been a global shift of marketing f rom MDCÃ¢â¬â¢s to LDCÃ¢â¬â¢s. Guests are encouraged to participate in low impact activities Ã¢â¬â o guided nature/bird walks, o cycling, fishing o Day or night game drives are conducted in open-sided 4Ãâ"4 vehicles Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lodges work closely with the local community and support several enterprises, schools and an orphanage. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Guests can visit a group of widows that craft sisal baskets, a group that makes jewellery from recycled paper and a rug weaving factory. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The lodges only sell what is made by the community and pay a fair price. Ã¢â¬ ¢ A large percentage of the price is donated to the community fund. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Every year, children from the local community and schools are invited to participate in ecotourism workshops Ã¢â¬ ¢ To protect and improve their environment.